养蚕不用桑 黔江成功试点人工饲料小蚕共育

2022-06-06

  养蚕不用桑叶,而是依靠饲料。近日,黔江科研机构试点人工饲料小蚕共育获得成功,并在武陵山区首次进行产业化示范与推广。


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  俗话说:“养好小蚕七成收”,小蚕从一龄期到三龄期,发育速度快、抗病能力弱,需要在恒温、恒湿、无菌环境下共育,再交给蚕农饲养到上簇结茧。在重庆黔江区太极镇的小蚕标准化共育室里,蚕宝宝密密麻麻布满了蚕床,它们吃的并不是桑叶,而是根据蚕的食性特点,从桑叶粉、大豆粉等原料中提取合成的人工饲料。

  “人工饲料营养均衡,共育的小蚕发育整齐,几乎不会出现家蚕中毒和病原菌侵扰。经过我们反复的试验,人工饲料蚕产茧量和缫丝率不亚于传统的桑叶养蚕。”重庆市蚕科院院地合作办公室副主任李硕表示。

  据介绍,人工饲料小蚕共育,对共育室环境和饲料成分有着严格的要求。从2020年起,重庆黔江区在西南大学、重庆市蚕科院支持下,开始选育适应人工饲料的家蚕品质,并进行了小批量试验,均由于养蚕环境得不到保障、蚕种不适应,宣告失败。这次试点成功,也为接下来大面积推广提供了可靠的依据。

  黔江作为国家蚕桑生物产业基地,建有2万多个标准化蚕棚,优质桑园面积保持在9万亩左右。在国家“东桑西移”战略带动下,黔江通过种桑养蚕成功治理土地石漠化,为群众找到持续增收渠道。蚕桑产业持续向好,为当地坚持绿色发展、引领乡村振兴开出富民良方。

  “人工饲料小蚕共育在配方、蚕种和技术层面日趋成熟,也是首次在武陵山区进行产业化示范和推广。”重庆市科技局帮扶集团乡村振兴工作队队员袁啸表示。接下来将规模化开展小蚕人工饲料共育+大蚕桑叶饲养,探索实施全龄人工饲料养蚕,用科技创新成果,助力重庆蚕桑产业走向集约化、规模化,为乡村振兴赋能。(重报集团武陵分社记者 王尊 陈攀





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